Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Long Passages

An upsurge of new research suggests that physicals have a very much higher level of brainpower than previously aspect. If animals do have learning, how do scientists measure it? Before be animals intelligence, scientists defined what is not intelligence. Instinct is not intelligence. It is a skill programmed into an animals brain by its genetic heritage. rote conditioning is also not intelligence. Tricks force out be learned by repetition, but no real(a) thinking is involved. Cuing, in which animals learn to do or not to do certain things by interest outside signals, does not demonstrate intelligence.Scientists believe that shrewdness, the ability to social function rays, and communication using human verbiage ar all effective measures of the mental ability of animals. (2) When judging animal intelligence, scientists get a line for insight, which they define as a flash of sudden understanding. When a young gorilla could not reach fruit from a tree, she noticed crates sc attered about the lawn near the tree. She pi take the crates into a pyramid, then climbed on them to reach her reward. The gorillas insight allowed her to make a new problem without trial and error. (3) The ability to consumption tools is also an important sign of intelligence.Crows use stings to pry peanuts out of cracks. The crow exhibits intelligence by showing it has learned what a stick freighter do. Likewise, otters use rocks to crack open crab shells in order to get at the meat. In a series of complex moves, chimpanzees have been known to use sticks and stalks in order to get at a favorite snacktermites. To make and use a termite tool, a chimp first selects fair(a) the regenerate stalk or twig. He trims and shapes the stick, then finds the entrance to a termite mound. While inserting the stick carefully into the entrance, the chimpanzee turns it skillfully to fit the inner tunnels.The chimp attracts the insects by shaking the twig. Then it pulls the tool out without scr aping off any termites. Finally, he uses his lips to skim the termites into his mouth. (4) Many animals have learned to advertise using human language. Some primates have learned hundreds of words in sign language. wholeness chimp can recognize and correctly use more than 250 abstract symbols on a keyboard. These symbols dissemble human words. An amazing parrot can distinguish five objects of two different types. He can understand the difference between the number, color, and kind of object.The ability to classify is a basic thinking skill. He seems to use language to express his admits and emotions. When ill and taken to the animal hospital for his first nightlong stay, this parrot turned to go. Come here he cried to a scientist who works with him. I love you. Im sorry. Wanna go back? (5) The research on animal intelligence raises important questions. If animals are smarter than once thought, would that change the charge humans interact with them? Would humans stop hunting them for sport or survival? Would animals dumb be used for food, clothing, or medical experimentation?Finding the answer to these tough questions makes a arduous experience even for a large-brained, problem-solving species like our own. 1. Crows use sticks to pry peanuts out of cracks. Which of the following is the kind of intelligence or conditioning the situation describes? a. rote learning b. tools c. communication d. instinct 2. The under byplayd word upsurge, as it is used in the first split of the passage, most nearly means a. an increasingly large amount. b. a decreasing amount. c. a well-known amount. d. an immeasurable amount. 3. The concluding paragraph of this passage infers which of the following? . There is no definitive line between those animals with intelligence and those without. b. Animals are being given opportunities to display their intelligence. c. Research showing higher animal intelligence may fuel debate on ethics and cruelty. d. Animals are capable of u ntrained thought well beyond mere instinct. 4. According to the passage, which of the following is true about animals communicating through the use of human language? a. Parrots can imitate or repeat a sound. b. Dolphins click and whistle. c. Crows screech warnings to early(a) crows. d.Chimpanzees and gorillas have been trained to use sign language or geometric shapes that stand for words. 5. In paragraph 3, what conclusion can be reached about the chimpanzees ability to use a tool? a. It illustrates high intelligence because he is able to get his food and eat it. b. It illustrates instinct because he faced a difficult task and accomplished it. c. It illustrates high intelligence because he stored knowledge away and called it up at the right time. d. It illustrates high intelligence because termites are proteinpacked. 6. Which of the following is not a sign of animal intelligence? . shows insight b. cues c. uses tools d. makes a plan Passage 2 (1) Photosynthesis is the serve up th at set outs use to convert sunlight into the food that they need to survive and grow. Most plants create some form of sugar from the sunlight, and this sugar is used by the plant as its primary food source. (2) Plants actually need only three things to create this sugar sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water. The sunlight reacts with the plants chlorophyll, a ballpark chemical which is used to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugar. (3) As a general rule, photosynthesis occurs in a plants leaves.The leaf contains chlorophyll, which reacts when sunlight strikes the leaf. It is also the chlorophyll which gives the leaf its typical green color, since photosynthesis absorbs most light rays except green, which are reflected outwards. (4) The process of photosynthesis produces more than just sugar, however. One byproduct of the process is oxygen, which is exhaled by the plant into the atmosphere. In fact, plant photosynthesis is one of the primary sources of oxygen generation on our planet, devising plant biography essential to almost all living things on earth. 7.According to paragraph 4, which of the following is a byproduct of photosynthesis? a. green pigment b. water c. carbon dioxide d. oxygen 8. The underlined word essential, as used in paragraph 4, most nearly means a. necessary. b. optional. c. fragrant. d. growing. 9. The passage explains that photosynthesis is a. done in the plant stem. b. what makes plants edible. c. the way that plants afford themselves. d. the source of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. 10. According to the passage, why do plant leaves look green? a. Leaves are actually not green. b. Photosynthesis absorbs all colors except green. .Sugar is green. d. Photosynthesis requires green light to produce sugar. 11. After teaching the passage, what can you conclude about photosynthesis? a. Chlorophyll is part of the ozone layer. b. Photosynthesis is the process that feeds a plant. c. Plants need oxygen to survive. d. The grow of a plan t provide water. 12. After reading the passage, what can you infer about photosynthesis? a. Human lifespan would not survive without plants. b. Chlorophyll tastes sweet. c. Sunlight has both good and bad effects on plants. d. overly much water can interfere with photosynthesis.Passage 3 1) Abraham capital of Nebraska served as the 16th President of the join States, yet he never went to college. In fact, Lincoln had nearly no formal education whatsoever, attendance schools for less than a year throughout his childhood. Yet this should not be construed to mean that Lincoln was carnal or unlearned on the contrary, he was one of the most well-read loss leaders of the time. The fact is that Abraham Lincoln educated himself by studying books of religion, philosophy, and literature, and he continued his voracious reading throughout his life. (2) A wish of public school education did not prevent Lincoln from proper a great leader.He led the United States through four years of civil war, which threatened to divide the nation into two fragment countries. He was a powerful opponent of slavery, and it was largely through his leadership that slavery was abolished in this country. (3) Lincolns decisiveness to educate himself through diligent reading also led to his reputation as a great oratorand even today his speeches are quoted and studied worldwide.He serves as an example of a great leaderand a great reader. His love of books and good literature enabled Abe Lincoln to rise to world renown. 3. What is the main head of this passage? a. Abe Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States. b. Abe Lincoln demonstrated the value of reading. c. Abe Lincoln was a Republican. d. Abe Lincoln freed the slaves. 14. Lincoln accomplished all of the following EXCEPT a. preventing the United States from being divided. b. ending slavery. c. becoming a great leader. d. establishing the Lincoln Memorial. 15. A voracious reader is a. likely to become President. b. a psyche who makes reading a regular habit. c. someone who never went to school. d. probably poor. 16.The underlined word construed, as used in paragraph 1, most nearly means a. tormented. b. taken apart. c. unscrewed. d. interpreted. 17. According to the passage, what lesson can be learned from the life of Abraham Lincoln? a. Education is not important. b. All books are worth reading. c. Good reading habits can servicing a person do great things. d. Politicians are always good role models. 18. How does Lincoln still affect students today? a. His face is on money. b. His speeches are still quoted and studied today. c. People grow beards to look like him. d. Students quit school in hopes of becoming president.

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